Yeah, the UK, and EU are kinda lacking in some of those areas. Thankfully, I find the opposite also tends to be true. There is less broker tracking, compared to the US.
There are services where you can get a virtual card, like Barkleys, Skrill or Monzo, but they’re not temporary. Oh, you also have Revalut, but they are absolutely terrible. More like a dodgy bank substitute. I look forward to the day something like Privacy.com becomes available, in Europe.
The only service I can think of is Hushed. Though, their app is covered in trackers. For a service that advertises privacy, it doesn’t show in their app. To be fair, you can pick up a (normal carrier) PAYG SIM card, at many shops, and you don’t need to hand over your details. Just £10, for a topup, and sometimes a shop will want £1-3 for a card. Most of the time, it’s free. Less convenient than a service, but it’s more decentralised, and better for privacy.
As I have said MySudo is a good option. It is not well advertised but they do support people living in the UK and they provide UK numbers, although, you cannot get virtual cards as these are exclusive to the US.
You can also go into an O2 store and get a pre-paid sim. When you want to top-up you can go in-store and buy a voucher with cash which you can use to top-up your sim without any personal information.