Fedora should be working without any problems on a Tuxedo Notebook. Another interesting option for Linux notebook would be frame.work Notebook the 11th gen versions are still sold in germany and the 12th gen versions are on preorder. a 3rd Option could also be a Notebook from Slimbook (they are from Spain)
If a Notebook is made with linux support in mind all Distributions should work on them no problem as the Drivers are usually Open Source and already part of the kernel and the firmware usually then gets distributed by fwupd.org
With modern Linux Distributions when installing on supported hardware they just work out of the Box.
About privacy and Security: Linux is very privat. it does not sent any data somewhere without your consent. (exception: ubuntu has a telemetry thing that can be disabled)
you just need to be careful when installing closed source Programs on Linux as they can have telemetry, for example: I am using Discord and that tries to gather system data and what programs I run etc. But when using the Discord Flatpak or using it in a Browser window Discord is sandboxed and cant snoop around.
Security: Linux is as Secure or insecure as all modern PCs/Macs.
its the biggest weakness of all modern Desktop Operating Systems be it Windows, MacOSX or Linux: they dont have a robust MAC system with secure App Sandboxing and good Secure Hardware Element (Secure Boot is a joke)
you can increase your data security when the Notebook is off by using full discencryption, that will keep your data safe in case of theft.
About Grafical userinterfaces: The big two are KDE and GNOME.
KDE is more windows like while GNOME is more MacOS like. all Linux distributions usually come with the option to choose whichever Desktop Enviroment you want. They only differ when you choose the DE, either with different Installation images for the different DE, or you can choose during install or you just install the DE you like after you installed your system.
Linux Distributions that are Beginnerfriendly in no particular order they are all equally good:
Fedora (comes usually with GNOME, but also has a KDE version)
Pop_OS! (based on Ubuntu, uses GNOME, oyu can install KDE after install)
Linux Mint (based on Ubuntu, uses Cinnemon as DE, but you can install other DES :-))
Endevour OS (Arch based Distro, you can choose the DE during install)
Manjaro (Arch Based, different DEs have different install images, is a bit controversial as there where some drama and problems in the past, but its usually solid)
if you have more questions about linux feel free to ask them I switched to Linux myself a little over 2 years ago now and learned a lot since then